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Anti-Forensics with Steganographic Data Embedding in Digital Images

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4 Author(s)
Hung-Min Sun ; Dept. of Comput. Sci., Nat. Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan ; Chi-Yao Weng ; Chin-Feng Lee ; Cheng-Hsing Yang

E-forensics investigates and extracts confidential information from electronic products; in other words, the anti-forensics indicates that evidences in those products are imperceptible and undetected. This work presents an anti-forensic steganography method that can embed and extract messages from images. Highlight of exploiting modification direction (HoEMD) and adaptive EMD (AdEMD) methods use the module operation and take into account of the sensitive nature of a human visual system. The HoEMD approach exploits the pixel directions. A pixel with a larger change implies more pixel directions and, ultimately, a larger embedding capacity. The pixel differencing in the proposed AdEMD method is used to evaluate whether the pixel located in the edge area can tolerate a larger change than that of the pixel location in a smooth area. To successfully extract a message, the differencing value is maintained on the same level before and after data is concealed; a delicate adjusting phase is used as well. In contrast with the PVD and LSB replacement method of Wu et al., LSB substitution method, and Lee and Chen's data hiding scheme based on modulus function, the proposed steganography system has a larger embedding capacity and a higher image quality. Effectiveness of the proposed steganography schemes over that of a previous blind steganalyzer is demonstrated using the statistical attack of Chi-square analysis.

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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on  (Volume:29 ,  Issue: 7 )