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Rate Distortion Theory for Causal Video Coding: Characterization, Computation Algorithm, and Comparison

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4 Author(s)
En-Hui Yang ; Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada ; Lin Zheng ; Da-Ke He ; Zhen Zhang

Causal video coding is considered from an information theoretic point of view, where video source frames X1, X2, ..., XN are encoded in a frame by frame manner, the encoder for each frame Xk can use all previous frames and all previous encoded frames while the corresponding decoder can use only all previous encoded frames, and each frame Xk itself is modeled as a source Xk = {Xk (i) }i=1. A novel computation approach is proposed to analytically characterize, numerically compute, and compare the minimum total rate of causal video coding Rc*(D1, ...,DN) required to achieve a given distortion (quality) level D1, ...,DN >; 0. Among many other things, the computation approach includes an iterative algorithm with global convergence for computing Rc*(D1, ...,DN) . The global convergence of the algorithm further enables us to demonstrate a somewhat surprising result (dubbed the more and less coding theorem)-under some conditions on source frames and distortion, the more frames need to be encoded and transmitted, the less amount of data after encoding has to be actually sent. With the help of the algorithm, it is also shown by example that Rc*(D1, ...,DN) is in general much smaller than the total rate offered by the traditional greedy coding method. As a by-product, an extended Markov lemma is established for correlated ergodic sources.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Information Theory  (Volume:57 ,  Issue: 8 )