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This paper presents an analysis of the cost of utilizing battery electric vehicle (BEV) batteries as energy storage in power grids [also known as vehicle-to-grid (V2G)] associated with lessening battery cycle life due to more frequent charging and discharging activities and utilization in elevated ambient temperature. Comparison is made between V2G in the U.K., where annual electricity peak demand is reached in winter, and in China, where peak demand is reached in summer due to the air conditioning load. This paper presents mathematical correlations between charging-discharging, ambient temperature, depth of discharge (DoD), and the degradation of electric vehicle batteries based on manufacturer's data. Simulation studies were carried out for V2G in both the U.K. and China. Numerical results show that ambient temperature and DoD of a BEV battery play a crucial role in the cost of battery wear. Lead-acid and NiMH battery powered BEVs are not cost effective in V2G use due to the present electricity tariff. Under the present electricity tariff structure, no vehicles would be cost effective for the peak power sources in China. However, lithium-ion battery powered BEVs are cost effective in the U.K. due to a much longer cycle life.
Date of Publication: Dec. 2011