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Nowadays, the development of low-carbon economy not only means reducing the carbon content of energy and greenhouse gases, but also is synonymous with the new concept of sustainable development, which is charactered by resource-saving, environment-friendly, economic and social harmonious development of human beings. By constructing the indicator system of low-carbon economic development level, factor analysis method has been applied to low carbon research. In order to evaluate low-carbon economy development in five provinces in the northwest of China, this paper applies principal component analysis to China's north western. It provides the reference for promoting low-carbon economic development in the northwest of our countries.