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We propose and analyze a class of distributed algorithms performing the joint optimization of radio resources in heterogeneous cellular networks made of a juxtaposition of macro and small cells. We show that within this context, it is essential to use algorithms able to simultaneously solve the problems of channel selection, user association and power control. In such networks, the unpredictability of the cell and user patterns also requires self-optimized schemes. The proposed solution is inspired from statistical physics and is based on Gibbs sampler. It can be implemented in a fully distributed way and nevertheless achieves minimal system-wide potential delay. Simulation results show that it outperforms today's default operational methods in both throughput and energy efficiency.