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The continuing miniaturization of electronic devices and the increasing power output of electrical equipment have created new challenges in packaging and insulating materials. The key goals are to develop materials with high thermal conductivity, low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low dielectric con stant, high electrical resistivity, high breakdown strength, and most importantly, low cost. Polymeric materials have attracted increasing interest because of their excellent processability and low cost; however, most polymers are thermally insulating and have a thermal conductivity between 0.1 and 0.5 W-m-ι-K"1. One approach to increase the thermal conductivity of a polymer is to introduce high-thermal-conductivity fillers, such as aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron nitride, silicon nitride, beryllium oxide, or diamond. In this review paper, we explore how dielectric polymer composites with high thermal conductivity have been developed.