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Ultrasound propagation through cancellous bone can be greatly affected by the trabecular structure. In the present study, the ultrasound propagation for the oblique orientation of the trabecular network was numerically investigated using 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The models of cancellous bone were reconstructed from X-ray microcomputed tomographic (μCT) images of a bovine bone. Cancellous bone models with various orientations of the trabecular network were realized by cutting the μCT images rotated from 0 to 90°. Ultrasound waveforms propagating through these cancellous bone models were simulated while changing the receiving position. The refraction of the ultrasound wave for the oblique angle of the main orientation was investigated on the basis of the variation in the arrival time and peak amplitude. As the propagation direction approached the direction parallel to the main orientation, the arrival time of the first peak became less and the peak amplitude became smaller. This means that the wave of the first peak, which corresponded to a fast wave, propagated in the direction perpendicular to the main orientation. In addition, a strong correlation between the first-peak amplitude and the arrival time was observed in the porosity range of 0.68 to 0.85, in which the slope of the amplitude with respect to time increased linearly with porosity.
Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:58 , Issue: 7 )
Date of Publication: July 2011