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In this paper, an intelligent multi-mode energy-refreshing station for electric vehicles is proposed. It can offer slow charging, fast charging and battery swapping simultaneously to satisfy the various demands of EV owners. In addition, the distributed renewable energy, such as solar power and wind power, and the vehicle-to-grid technology are fully involved to maximum the overall profits and minimize the negative effect on the regional power grid.
Date of Conference: 6-8 June 2011