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Wireless sensor networks interfere in a growing number of applications ranging from simple environmental monitoring like temperature detection to complex calculation such as video processing. This last type of application requires a high load at the sensor level and leads to a problem of optimization. It is critical to design algorithms and protocols in such a way to use minimal energy. This paper provides a survey of WSNs technologies, main applications and hardware evolutions. In the other hand, we will provide an insight about the latest trends of the technique to reduce the power consumption within the WSN that could possibly make this emerging technological area more useful than ever.