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The performance of high-speed electronic systems is limited by interconnect-related failure modes such as coupled noise. We propose new techniques for alleviating the problems caused by coupling between signal lines on integrated circuits. We show that models used by previous work on coupled noise-constrained layout synthesis do not allow the use of several important degrees of freedom. These degrees of freedom include the ability to utilize dynamic noise margins rather than static noise margins, the dependence of coupled noise on drive strength, and the possibility of using overlaps to reduce susceptibility to noise. We derive an expression for the coupled noise integral and a bound for the peak coupled noise voltage which shows order of magnitude improvements in both accuracy and fidelity compared to the charge sharing model used in previous work. We use the new bounds to guide a greedy channel router, which manipulates exact adjacency information at every stage, allowing it to introduce jogs or doglegs when necessary for coupled noise reduction. Experimental results indicate that our algorithm compares favorably to previous work. The coupled noise is significantly reduced on benchmark instances.
Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:16 , Issue: 3 )
Date of Publication: March 1997