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One of the consequences of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is that the expected excess return of a financial instrument is proportional to the expected excess market return. The proportionality constant, called the instrument's beta, is the coefficient in the linear least-squares fit of the excess return of the instrument with the excess return of the market. CAPM therefore implies that stocks with larger empirical estimates of beta will tend to produce larger returns. Following the testing procedure from a 2006 study by Grantham, we analyze this hypothesis using the stock return data for the S&P 500 constituents from 1965 to 2009. We obtain several statistically significant results inconsistent with the hypothesis.