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Uncertainty is an inevitable problem in real-time industrial control systems and, to handle this problem and the additional one of possible variations in the parameters of the system, the use of sliding mode control theory-based approaches is frequently suggested. In this paper, instead of using a conventional sliding mode controller, a sliding mode control theory-based learning algorithm is proposed to train the fuzzy neural networks in a feedback-error-learning structure. The parameters of the fuzzy neural network are tuned by the proposed algorithm not to minimize the error function but to ensure that the error satisfies a stable equation. The parameter update rules of the fuzzy neural network are derived, and the proof of the learning algorithm is verified by using the Lyapunov stability method. The proposed method is tested on a real-time servo system with time-varying and nonlinear load conditions.