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High-end embedded processors demand complex on-chip cache hierarchies satisfying several contradicting design requirements such as high-performance operation and low energy consumption. This paper introduces light-power (LP) nonuniform cache architecture (NUCA), a tiled-cache addressing both goals. LP-NUCA places a group of small and low-latency tiles between the L1 and the last level cache (LLC) that adapt better to the application working sets and keep most recently evicted blocks close to L1. LP-NUCA is built around three specialized “networks-in-cache,” each aimed at a separate cache operation. To prove the design feasibility, we have fully implemented LP-NUCA in a 90-nm technology. From the VLSI implementation, we observe that the proposed networks-in-cache incur minimal area, latency, and power overhead. To further reduce the energy consumption, LP-NUCA employs two network-wide techniques (miss wave stopping and sectoring) that together reduce the dynamic cache energy by 35% without degrading performance. Our evaluations also show that LP-NUCA improves performance with respect to cache hierarchies similar to those found in high-end embedded processors. Similar results have been obtained after scaling to a 32-nm technology.
Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:20 , Issue: 8 )
Date of Publication: Aug. 2012