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Directional drilling is the science of directing a wellbore along a predetermined trajectory to intersect a designated subsurface target. Baker Hughes' directional drilling services have earned a worldwide reputation for providing reliable and cost-effective services with precise wellbore placement and faster rate of penetration (ROP) than comparable systems. The rotary steerable system (RSS) optimizes the directional drilling process through precise steering controls for optimal wellbore placement to maximize production. However, the directional drilling system faces increasingly severe operating environments, with bottomhole temperatures in excess of 200°C, high lateral and axial vibrations of 15 g_RMS (root mean square), and pressures exceeding 25,0000 PSI while drilling profiles requiring up to 15° /100ft. The reliable performance of directional drilling systems is critical for operational success. Failures of drilling systems require tripping the equipment out of the hole to replace it, resulting in one half to two days of nonproductive time (NPT) on drilling rigs costing $100K-$1M/day. From a cost-effectiveness and company competitive perspective, developing effective and efficient fault detection methods to continuously evaluate the health condition of the directional drilling system becomes important and necessary for the upstream oil and gas industry. This paper presents the development and implementation of the fault detection technique of the prognostics health management methodology including the supporting detection algorithm and operation data flow management for the directional drilling system. This developed methodology is being used as a tool to provide higher downhole operating efficiencies, and faster root cause analysis while reducing repair and maintenance costs.