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Tissue response to chronically stimulated implanted epimysial and intramuscular electrodes

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4 Author(s)
J. M. Akers ; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH, USA ; P. H. Peckham ; M. W. Keith ; K. Merritt

Twenty-four epimysial and 16 intramuscular electrodes were implanted in five adult dogs for periods ranging from 11 to 50 months. Chronic stimulation was applied to half of the electrodes for eight weeks near the end of the implantation period. The tissue response was rated by the amount and appearance of the fibrous tissue and inflammatory cells seen in the capsule lining the region of the electrode. The encapsulation tissues were composed primarily of collagen and fibroblasts and some macrophages and few other inflammatory cells. The epimysial electrodes exhibited more variation between and within electrodes, but had more of the better scores than the intramuscular electrodes. No difference in the distribution of scores was measured between the control and stimulated groups for the epimysial electrodes. While the scores for the intramuscular electrodes varied very little, variance was sufficient to indicate a trend for poorer ratings with the application of chronic stimulation. Fibrous capsules were generally thinner under the epimysial electrodes than around the intramuscular electrodes. For both electrode types, the thickness was not correlated with the application or level of chronic stimulation. Thickness was shown to be positively correlated to the degree of loss of the sutures used to anchor the epimysial electrodes

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering  (Volume:5 ,  Issue: 2 )