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First C1-C5 alcohols which were very important in practical application were analyzed, and the thermodynamic analysis for the synthesis of C1-C5 alcohols can guide the experiment in praxis. In the article the equilibrium constants were used to analyze the thermodynamic of the synthesis of C1-C5 alcohols and verified the calculation results in line with the trends of theoretical analysis. Reducing temperature and raising the pressure is useful for CO conversion rate and the generation of C1-C5 alcohols, as well as different molar ratio of H2/CO influence CO conversion rate. Eventually the optimum condition was confirmed. A new type of catalyst was developed, which can increase the yield of alcohols, then the theoretical analysis's correctness are verified by the experimental data.