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A system for in-vivo tracking of 192Ir source during high dose rate or pulsed dose rate brachytherapy treatment was built using 1 mm thick silicon pad detectors as image sensors and knife-edge lead pinholes as collimators. With source self-images obtained from a dual-pinhole system, location of the source could be reconstructed in three dimensions in real time. The system was tested with 192Ir clinical source (kerma rate in air at 1 m 2.38 Gy/h) in air and plexi-glass phantom. The locations of the source were tracked from a distance of 40 cm in a field of view of 20 × 20 × 20 cm3. Reconstruction precision, defined as the average distance between true and reconstructed source positions, with data collected in less than 1 s with 22 GBq 192Ir source was about 5 mm. The reconstruction precision was in our case mainly limited by imperfect alignment of detectors and pinholes. With perfect alignment the statistical error would allow precision of about 1 mm which could further be improved with larger detector placed at larger distance from the pinhole. However already the modest precision of few millimeters is sufficient for in-vivo detection of larger deviations from planned treatment caused by various misadministrations or malfunctioning of the brachytherapy treatment apparatus. Usage of silicon detectors offers a possibility for building a compact device which could be used as an independent online quality assurance system. In this paper details about sensors, readout system and reconstruction algorithm are described. Results from measurements with clinical source are presented.
Date of Publication: Oct. 2011