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XPS study of Sb-/In-doping and surface pinning effects on the Fermi level in SnO2 (101) thin films

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To investigate the doping and surface electron accumulation layer properties of tin dioxide (SnO2), the Fermi level and surface band bending of unintentionally-, antimony (Sb)-, and indium (In)-doped SnO2 (101) films were investigated by aluminum and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which probe surface and bulk regions, respectively. The Fermi level was above the conduction band minimum (CBM) for unintentionally-doped films and for highly Sb-doped films, which showed the conduction band feature, and deep in the band gap for In-doped films. The band bending and surface Fermi level indicated a surface Fermi level pinning in the CBM.

Published in:

Applied Physics Letters  (Volume:98 ,  Issue: 23 )

Date of Publication:

Jun 2011

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