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The efficiency and electrical characteristics of GaN-based high-voltage light-emitting diodes (HV-LEDs) are investigated in detail. The spatial distribution of light output and simulation results showed that 100-V HV-LED with smaller microchips had superior current spreading. As a result, under 1-W operation, the luminous efficiency of 100-V HV-LED with smaller microchips was enhanced by 7.8% compared to that of 50-V HV-LED, while the efficiency droop behaviors were reduced from 28% in 50-V HV-LED to 25.8% in 100-V HV-LED. Moreover, smaller microchips exhibited lower series resistance and forward voltage, leading to higher wall-plug efficiency.