Skip to Main Content
This paper presents a haptic simulator for prostate brachytherapy. Both needle insertion and the manipulation of the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe are controlled via haptic devices. Tissue interaction forces that are computed by a deformable tissue model based on the finite element method (FEM) are rendered to the user by these devices. The needle insertion simulation employs 3D models of needle flexibility and asymmetric tip bevel. The needle-tissue simulation allows a trainee to practice needle insertion and targeting. The TRUS-tissue interaction simulation allows a trainee to practice the 3D intraoperative TRUS placement for registration with the preoperative volume study and to practice TRUS axial translation and rotation for imaging needles during insertions. Approaches to computational acceleration for realtime haptic performance are presented. Trade-offs between accuracy and speed are discussed. A graphics-card implementation of the numerically intensive mesh-adaptation operation is also presented. The simulator can be used for training, rehearsal, and treatment planning.