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The problem of the position and velocity tracking control of high-speed trains becomes interesting yet challenging when simultaneously considering inevitable factors such as the resistive friction and aerodynamic drag forces, the interactive impacts among the vehicles, and the nonlinear traction/braking notches inherent in train systems. In this paper, a multiple point mass with a single-coordinate dynamic model that reflects resistive and transient impacts is derived, and based on this, computationally inexpensive robust adaptive control designs with optimal task distribution for speed and position tracking are proposed under traction/braking nonlinearities and saturation limitations. It is shown that the proposed method is not only robust to external disturbances, aerodynamic resistance, mechanical resistance, and transient impacts but adaptive to unknown system parameters as well. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is also confirmed through numerical simulations.