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Implantable pacing lead technology

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1 Author(s)
Stokes, K. ; Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA

Lead technology is reviewed, beginning with the first known permanent implant and continuing through today's state-of-the-art implant. Nondislodging transvenous leads and epimyocardial leads (sutureless, screw-in leads) are described. Conductors, insulation, and electrodes are discussed. The emphasis today appears to be on improving carbon, screw-in, porous, platinized and steroid eluting electrodes, while future developments may include very thin bipolar leads, higher pacing impedance electrodes, and easier to implant and explant devices.<>

Published in:

Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE  (Volume:9 ,  Issue: 2 )