By Topic

Concepts of rate responsive pacing

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$33 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

3 Author(s)
H. J. Smith ; Med. Eng. & Dev. Inst. Inc., West Lafayette, IN, USA ; N. E. Fearnot ; W. A. Hillenbrand

Various concepts for measuring (by means of biosensors incorporated into pacemakers) biologic parameters to determine the appropriate pacing rate are reviewed. They are pH, stimulus-to-T-wave interval, blood temperature, intercardiac blood pressure change, venous oxygen saturation, intercardiac impedance (stroke volume, ejection rate, preejection interval), thoracic impedance (respiratory rate, minute volume), R-wave area, and body vibration. Those which have been incorporated in an implantable pacemaker and studied in a significant number of patients include intracardiac blood temperature, respiratory rate, respiratory minute volume, stimulus-to-T-wave interval, and body vibration. Studies of intracardiac impedance, QRS complex area, venous oxygen saturation, and right ventricular pressure are in early stages. Because no single parameter has yet proved to be an ideal indicator of metabolic need, dual-chamber pacemakers, which use atrial rate and body vibration to control pacing rate, and multisensor pacemakers are under development.<>

Published in:

IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine  (Volume:9 ,  Issue: 2 )