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In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode control (AFSMC) was proposed for speed control of a hydraulic pressure coupling drive. The AFSMC combined a direct adaptive fuzzy scheme and a fuzzy sliding scheme in a new structure to reduce the tracking error and the chattering of the control effort. The input nonlinearity of the secondary unit, the input dead zone, was taken into account during the speed controller synthesis and analysis of the stability of the closed-loop system. The stability of a system was proven from Lyapunov's sense. Experiments were performed with different controllers, the AFSMC, the traditional sliding-mode control, and the PID controllers, and under different operating conditions. Then, the experimental results were brought into comparison to evaluate the effectiveness of the AFSMC controller from the viewpoints of stability, performance, and robustness of the closed-loop system.