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Politecnico di Milano has a long-lasting tradition in the field of movement analysis. Since the early 1980s, methods and technologies for 3-D motion capture have been designed and prototyped at the Dipartimento di Bioingegneria. Mathematical models and numerical simulations of the musculoskeletal and sensory motor control systems have been developed under different conditions, including microgravity and sport activities. These methods and techniques have pioneered the clinical applications of quantitative analysis of movement, posture, equilibrium, gait, and motor control for the evaluation of patients with motor disabilities throughout a multifactorial approach, including not only biomechanics (statics, kinematics, dynamics, and kinetics) but also functional signaling and imaging [EMG, EEG, NIRS, and fMRI]. Important current activities and future perspectives in the fields of functional assessment of the respiratory system and rehabilitation engineering, including quantitative and objective evaluation during the rehabilitation process, developments of man-machine interfaces, rehabilitation robotics, neuroprostheses, functional evaluation and development of advanced orthotic devices, orthopedic surgical treatment planning, sensory augmentation, and substitution, are being developed.