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Crystalline zinc oxide powders with various morphologies have been prepared by hydrothermal treatment of zinc acetate in pure water, different concentrate KOH aqueous solutions. The morphology and structure of the products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra. It was found that the concentrate of KOH play an important role in controlling the morphologies of the obtained crystals. The growth process of the zinc oxide crystals was also studied. At the same time, the photoluminescence (PL) properties of those products were researched, and the origin of the PL was discussed.