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In order to improve the calculation accuracy of polarized-light navigation sensor, the system error model was derived. Through the system error model, the system error source parameters could be calibrated outline, and the system error could be compensated greatly. The random error model was also derived in this paper. The transitive relation between random error and calculation accuracy of polarization direction was obtained. The transitive relation indicates that the angle error caused by random error is independent of polarization direction. According to this relation, the bound of angle error caused by random error could be calculated in real-time. The simulation results show that the system error model and random error model are correct and effective.