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Two active capacitor voltage balancing schemes are proposed for single-phase (H-bridge) flying-capacitor multilevel converters. They are based on the circuit equations of flying-capacitor converters. Consequently, they can be implemented using straightforward control rules. In particular, the first technique is based on an algorithm which follows the standard multilevel modulation. Then, it utilizes a redundant state selection table for capacitor voltage balancing. In the second method, multiple duty cycles are defined and modulated in direct response to the capacitor voltages. The most important advantage of these two proposed methods is that they can be utilized to converters with any desired number of levels in their output voltage. Moreover, the analysis and implementation of both methods are straightforward. Through simulation and experimental implementation, these methods are shown to be effective on capacitor voltage regulation in flying-capacitor multilevel converters.