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Fast Algorithms to Implement N-FINDR for Hyperspectral Endmember Extraction

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5 Author(s)
Wei Xiong ; Dept. of Comput. Sci. & Electr. Eng., Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA ; Chein-I Chang ; Chao-Cheng Wu ; Kalpakis, K.
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The N-finder algorithm (N-FINDR) suffers from several issues in its practical implementation. One is its search region which is usually the entire data space. Another related issue is its excessive computation. A third issue is its use of random initial conditions which causes inconsistency in final results that can not be reproducible if a search for endmembers is not exhaustive. This paper resolves the first two issues by developing two approaches to speed-up of the N-FINDR computation while implementing a recently developed random pixel purity index (RPPI) to alleviate the third issue. First of all, it narrows down the search region for the N-FINDR to a feasible range, called region of interest (ROI), where two ways are proposed, data sphering/thresholding and RPPI, to be used as a pre-processing to find a desired ROI. Second, three methods are developed to reduce computing load of simplex volume computation by simplifying matrix determinant. Third, to further reduce computational complexity three sequential N-FINDR algorithms are implemented by finding one endmember after another in sequence instead of finding all endmembers together at once. The conducted experiments demonstrate that while the proposed fast algorithms can greatly reduce computational complexity, their performance remains as good as the N-FINDR is and is not compromised by reduction of the search region to an ROI.

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Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:4 ,  Issue: 3 )