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Targeting improved spatial resolution, a three-dimensional positron-emission-tomography (PET) scanner employing CdTe semiconductor detectors and using depth-of-interaction (DOI) information was developed, and its physical performance was evaluated. This PET scanner is the first to use semiconductor detectors dedicated to the human brain and head-and-neck region. Imaging performance of the scanner used for 18F -fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG) scans of phantoms and human brains was evaluated. The gantry of the scanner has a 35.0-cm-diameter patient port, the trans-axial field of view (FOV) is 31.0 cm, and the axial FOV is 24.6 cm. The energy resolution averaged over all detector channels and timing resolution were 4.1% and 6.8 ns (each in FWHM), respectively. Spatial resolution measured at the center of FOV was 2.3-mm FWHM-which is one of the best resolutions achieved by human PET scanners. Noise-equivalent count ratio (NEC2R) has a maximum in the energy window of 390 to 540 keV and is 36 kcps/Bq/cm3 at 3.7 kBq/cm3 . The sensitivity of the system according to NEMA 1994 was 25.9 cps/Bq/cm3. Scatter fraction of the scanner is 37% for the energy window of 390 to 540 keV and 23% for 450 to 540 keV. Images of a hot-rod phantom and images of brain glucose metabolism show that the structural accuracy of the images obtained with the semiconductor PET scanner is higher than that possible with a conventional Bismuth Germanium Oxide (BGO) PET scanner. In addition, the developed scanner permits better delineation of the head-and-neck cancer. These results show that the semiconductor PET scanner will play a major role in the upcoming era of personalized medicine.