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The purpose of this paper is to effectively extract the line spectrum of ship shaft-rate electric signal from ocean environmental electric field. Firstly, the frequency domain characteristic of ocean environmental electric field is analyzed and the received signal corrupted by noise is pretreated by a band-pass filter whose pass band is 1~10Hz. Then, an improved adaptive line enhancement algorithm is introduced, in which coherent accumulative algorithm and output error weights are added. The error is closer to the current time, the weight is bigger. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by both the measured data and the simulated data. The verified result shows that the algorithm can detect line spectrum of target signal at the lower SNR situations efficiently compared to the ordinary adaptive line enhancement algorithm.