Skip to Main Content
This study presents a survey on the most recent learning approaches and algorithms that are related to fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs). FCMs are cognition fuzzy influence graphs, which are based on fuzzy logic and neural network aspects that inherit their main advantages. They gained momentum due to their dynamic characteristics and learning capabilities. These capabilities make them essential for modeling and decision-making tasks as they improve the performance of these tasks. An efficient number of learning algorithms for FCMs, by modifying the FCM weight matrix, have been developed in order to update the initial knowledge of human experts and/or include any knowledge from historical data in order to produce learned weights. The proposed learning techniques have mainly been concentrated on three directions: on the production of weight matrices on the basis of historical data, on adaptation of the cause-effect relationships of the FCM on the basis of experts' intervention, and on the production of weight matrices by combining experts' knowledge and data. The learning techniques could be categorized into three groups on the basis of the learning paradigm: Hebbian-based, population-based, and hybrid, which subsequently combine the main aspects of Hebbian-based- and population-based-type learning algorithms. These types of learning algorithms are the most efficient and widely used to train the FCMs, according to the existing literature. A survey on recent advances on learning methodologies and algorithms for FCMs that present their dynamic capabilities and application characteristics in diverse scientific fields is established here.