Skip to Main Content
Distributed Generators (DG) are generally modeled as PQ or PV buses in power flow studies. But in order to integrate DG units into the distribution systems and control the reactive power injection it is necessary to know the operation mode and the type of connection to the system. This paper presents a single-phase and a three-phase mathematical model to integrate DG in power flow calculations in distribution systems, especially suited for Smart Grid calculations. If the DG is in PV mode, each step of the power flow algorithm calculates the reactive power injection from the DG to the system to keep the voltage in the bus in a predefined level, if the DG is in PQ mode, the power injection is considered as a negative load. The method is tested on two well known test system, presenting single-phase results on 85 bus system, and three-phase results in the IEEE 34 bus test system.