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Adult fast-twitch mammalian skeletal muscle can acquire a markedly increased resistance to fatigue if it is suitably conditioned by long-term stimulation . This discovery has revived interest in the possibility of diverting skeletal muscle from its normal function to perform in a cardiac assist role. There are a number of ways in which we can try to harness the power of conditioned skeletal muscle for cardiac assistance [3,11]. In all cases, the goal is a level of partial assistance that restores a reasonable quality of life while improving, or at least preventing further deterioration in, the condition of the patient's own heart.