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Issues such as hand and tracker jitter negatively affect user performance with the ray-casting selection technique in 3D environments. This makes it difficult for users to perform tasks that require them to select objects that have a small visible area, since small targets require high levels of precision. We introduce an approach to address this issue that uses progressive refinement of the set of selectable objects to reduce the required precision of the task. We present a design space of progressive refinement techniques and an exemplar technique called Sphere-casting refined by QUAD-menu (SQUAD). We explore the tradeoffs between progressive refinement and immediate selection techniques in an evaluation comparing SQUAD to ray-casting. Both an analytical evaluation based on a distal pointing model and an empirical evaluation demonstrate that progressive refinement selection can be better than immediate selection. SQUAD was much more accurate than ray-casting, and SQUAD was faster than ray-casting with small targets and less cluttered environments.
3D User Interfaces (3DUI), 2011 IEEE Symposium on
Date of Conference: 19-20 March 2011