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Annealing effects on structural and magnetic properties of Co implanted ZnO single crystals

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8 Author(s)
Wikberg, J.M. ; Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden ; Knut, R. ; Audren, A. ; Ottosson, M.
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Single crystals of ZnO were implanted with 100 keV-Co ions at room temperature with a fluence of 4.8×1016 cm-2 and subsequently annealed at different temperatures up to 800C. The samples were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and magnetometry. The as-implanted Co:ZnO crystal shows a homogeneous distribution of Co in the near surface region of the crystal. Upon annealing, clear evidence of secondary phases is found. At the highest annealing temperature (800C) a ferromagnetic behavior is observed at room temperature with a coercive field of 120 Oe assigned mainly to metallic fcc Co nano-crystallites. We find that for the annealed samples, the temperature dependent magnetization cannot be explained within a model containing only a paramagnetic contribution due to well dispersed Co ions and a ferromagnetic contribution due to Co nano-crystallites, at least one more ferromagnetic contribution is needed for a consistent explanation of the experimental results.

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Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:109 ,  Issue: 8 )