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The amounts of charge collection by single-photon absorption (SPA) and by two-photon absorption (TPA) laser testing techniques have been directly compared using specially made SOI diodes. For SPA measurements and some TPA measurements, the back substrates of the diodes were removed by etching with XeF2. With the back substrates removed, the amount of TPA induced charge collection can be correlated to the amount of SPA induced charge collection. There are significant differences, however, in the amount of TPA induced charge collection for diodes with and without substrates. For the SOI diodes of this study, this difference appears to arise from several contributions, including nonlinear-optical losses and distortions that occur as the pulse propagates through the substrate, as well as displacement currents that occur only when the back substrate is present. These results illustrate the complexity of interpreting TPA and SPA single-event upset measurements.