Skip to Main Content
This paper introduces a new paradigm for design and batch fabrication of isotropic 3-D spherical shell resonators. The approach uses pressure and surface tension driven plastic deformation (glassblowing) on a wafer scale as a mechanism for creating inherently smooth and symmetric 3-D resonant structures. The feasibility of the new approach was demonstrated by fabrication and characterization of Pyrex glass spherical shell resonators with millimeter-scale diameter and average thickness of 10 μm . Metal electrodes cofabricated along with the shell were used to actuate the two dynamically balanced four- and six-node vibratory modes. For 1-MHz glass-blown resonators, the relative frequency mismatch Δf/f between the two degenerate four-node wineglass modes was measured as 0.63% without any trimming or tuning. For the higher order six-node wineglass modes, the relative frequency mismatch was only 0.2%, demonstrating the potential for precision manufacturing. The intrinsic manufacturing symmetry enabled by the technology may inspire new classes of high-performance 3-D MEMS for communication and inertial navigation.