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One-dimensional (1D) periodic structures with a localized defect and operating in the mm and sub-mm wavelength ranges can be formed by machining small perturbations on the waveguide's walls. We demonstrate the applicability of such structures for diverse applications: from particle acceleration to materials research. It is shown that the strong field enhancement inside the sizable lattice defect should allow material analysis in strong electric fields, as well as construction of novel particle accelerating structures and klystron cavities. The design of the apparatus to launch the radiation is also discussed.