Skip to Main Content
NAND flash memories are now indispensable for our modern lives. The application range of the storage memory devices began with digital still cameras and has been extended to USB memories, memory cards, MP3 players, cell phones including smart phones, netbooks, and so on. This is because higher storage capacity and lower cost are realized through means of technology scaling every year. Emerging markets, such as solid-state drives (SSDs) and data-storage servers, require lower bit cost, higher program and read throughputs, and lower power consumption.