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Seawater flue gas Desulfurization (SFGD) was adopted in many coal-fired power plants of littoral for its low cost and high desulfurization efficiency. Operating Parameters would seriously affect SFGD efficiency, the desulfurization efficiency can be improved by adjusting reasonable parameters. this paper applied Least Square Support Machine (LSSVM) to build the studying model of seawater desulfurization efficiency With a seawater desulfurization system of a 1000MW thermal power plant, through analyzing the influencing factors. The input parameters of the model were sulfur dioxide concentration at flue gas inlet, net flue gas flow & temperature, electric current of water booster pump, seawater flow & temperature of the absorption tower inlet. Seawater flue gas desulfurization efficiency was used as output of the model. Then through using the method of genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the seawater desulfurization efficiency, the research obtained the optimizing and adjusting tactics, which can be used to guide power plant desulfurization operation adjustment. It was proved in the field, that the desulfurization efficiency had been improved for using the value of adjustment.