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2-D numerical simulation is employed to assess a number of possible design approaches aimed at optimizing the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of ZnO-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown along the c-axis. First, the relative performance of similar ZnO-based and GaN-based LED structures is compared and discussed. Second, the effects on IQE of thickness, doping, and alloy composition of the MgZnO electron blocking layer (EBL) is studied in order to maximize the carrier confinement in the active region. The optimum number of quantum wells is also addressed, and different strategies for barrier doping are considered, showing that, if the EBL is doped p-type, a similar doping in the barriers is not required to compensate for the spontaneous and piezoelectric interface charges and to enhance hole transport. Different choices of the geometrical and doping parameters of the n-type access region are considered, and the impact of different values of the electron mobility is determined. Finally, the analysis of a ZnO/BeZnO LED structure suggests that the incorporation of BeZnO layers does not provide significant advantages.