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Three-dimensional television (3D-TV) is the next major revolution in television. A successful rollout of 3D-TV will require a backward-compatible transmission/distribution system, inexpensive 3D displays, and an adequate supply of high-quality 3D program material. With respect to the last factor, the conversion of 2D images/videos to 3D will play an important role. This paper provides an overview of automatic 2D-to-3D video conversion with a specific look at a number of approaches for both the extraction of depth information from monoscopic images and the generation of stereoscopic images. Some challenging issues for the success of automatic 2D-to-3D video conversion are pointed out as possible research topics for the future.