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In cellular applications, open-loop small-signal polar transmitters offer several advantages such as low power consumption and small silicon area. However, due to their complexity, circuit imperfections can severely affect performance, potentially rendering them impractical to meet the challenging cellular transmitter requirements. In this paper a detailed analysis of the direct-modulated and small-signal polar transmitters for GSM/EDGE/WCMA applications are provided followed by some case studies. Several key non-idealities will be discussed and circuit level as well as architectural remedies for each will be presented. A prototype EDGE transmitter fabricated in 65 nm CMOS with an 8PSK ±400 kHz modulation spectrum of -64/63 dBc for high/low bands, and an RMS EVM of 2.5/2.0% will be discussed.
Date of Publication: June 2011