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Local binary pattern (LBP) is a nonparametric descriptor, which efficiently summarizes the local structures of images. In recent years, it has aroused increasing interest in many areas of image processing and computer vision and has shown its effectiveness in a number of applications, in particular for facial image analysis, including tasks as diverse as face detection, face recognition, facial expression analysis, and demographic classification. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of LBP methodology, including several more recent variations. As a typical application of the LBP approach, LBP-based facial image analysis is extensively reviewed, while its successful extensions, which deal with various tasks of facial image analysis, are also highlighted.