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Theoretical and experimental analysis of the spectral characteristics of the signal acquired from self-mixing laser Doppler of extracorporeal blood flow is presented. The theoretical spectrum of the predetected signal is calculated in the single scattering approximation and assuming a parabolic velocity profile in the duct. The resulting signal is mixed in a diode laser cavity to generate the sensor output. Theoretical predictions are verified by measurements performed on blood and phantoms flowing in an extracorporeal circulation system.