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In this paper, we propose two schemes for sensor and relay node placement in environmental sensing applications. The first scheme aims at maximizing the network lifetime by reducing the total energy consumption. The second does so while maintaining fault-tolerance constraints. It guarantees a lower bound on the minimum required number of faulty nodes. Both schemes are based on a 3-D hierarchical architecture, in which nodes are placed on grid vertices to limit the search space. We divide the lifetime of the network into fixed-length rounds and find the placement which reserves more energy in each round to prolong the lifetime. These problems are formulated via Integer Linear Programs (ILPs). An ILP solver is used to find the optimal placement of nodes in addition to multi-hop routing from the sensors to the base-station in both schemes. Extensive simulations and comparisons, assuming practical considerations of signal propagation and connectivity, show that our fault-tolerant scheme introduces a significant lifetime extension as compared to the first one under the same harsh operational conditions.
Date of Conference: 10-14 Oct. 2010