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The Earth's atmosphere heavily affects the remote sensing images collected by spaceborne passive optical sensors due to radiation-matter interaction phenomena like radiation absorption, scattering, and thermal emission. A complex phenomenon is the adjacency effect, i.e., radiation reflected by the ground that, due to the atmospheric scattering, is being seen in a viewing direction different from that corresponding to the ground location that reflected it. Adjacency gives rise to crosstalk between neighboring picture elements up to a distance that depends on the width of the integral kernel function employed for the mathematical modeling of the problem. As long as the atmosphere is a linear space-invariant system, the adjacency can be modeled as a low-pass filter, with the atmospheric point spread function (APSF) applied to the initial image. In this paper, a direct method of estimating the discrete normalized APSF (NAPSF) using images gathered by high-resolution optical sensors is discussed. We discuss the use of the NAPSF estimate for deducing the Correction Spatial high-pass Filter (CSF)-a correction filter that removes the adjacency effect. The NAPSF estimation procedure has been investigated using statistical simulations, whose outcomes permitted us to identify the conditions under which the NAPSF could be measured with acceptable errors. The NAPSF estimation is examined for various natural images acquired by MOMS-2P, CHRIS, AVIRIS, and MIVIS.
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:49 , Issue: 7 )
Date of Publication: July 2011