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Background: Horizontal gene transfer and gene duplication are two significant forces behind genome evolution. As more and more well-supported examples of HGTs are being revealed, there is a growing awareness that HGT is more widespread than previously thought, occurring often not only within bacteria, but also between species remotely related such as bacteria and plants or plants and animals. Although a substantial number of genomic sequences are known, HGT inference remains challenging. Parsimony-based inferences of HGT events are typically NP-hard under the framework of gene tree and species tree comparison; it is even more time-consuming if the maximum likelihood approach is used. The fact that gene tree and species tree incongruence can be further confounded by gene duplication and gene loss events motivates us to incorporate considerations for these events into our inference of HGT events. Similarly, it will be beneficial if known HGT events are considered in the inference of gene duplications and gene losses.