Skip to Main Content
Energy constraint for V2G frequency regulation is illustrated in terms of state-of-charge (SOC) of the pertaining vehicle battery. Actual regulation signal is investigated, and energy deviation caused by a single regulation signal is obtained. With the derived energy deviation model, a probability distribution of successful regulation is estimated. Random walk theory is employed for stochastic analysis of the distribution. For the derived probability distribution, an approximation to the normal distribution is made to perform practical calculation on a digital computer. Estimated probability distribution is averaged over the unit contract time, usually an hour, to yield a weight function that represents the energy constraint. Finally, simulations are provided to with various parameters.